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What is Reverse Osmosis?

Mar. 18, 2021

Reverse osmosis, also known as reverse osmosis, is a membrane separation operation that uses pressure difference as the driving force to separate solvent from solution. Pressure is applied to the material liquid on one side of the membrane. When the pressure exceeds its osmotic pressure, the solvent will reverse osmosis against the direction of natural permeation. In this way, the permeated solvent is obtained on the low pressure side of the membrane, that is, the permeate; the high pressure side is the concentrated solution, that is, the concentrated solution. If reverse osmosis is used to treat seawater, fresh water is obtained on the low pressure side of the membrane and brine is obtained on the high pressure side.

Reverse Osmosis Controller

Reverse Osmosis Controller

Because it is opposite to the direction of natural penetration, it is called reverse osmosis. According to the different osmotic pressure of various materials, the reverse osmosis pressure greater than the osmotic pressure can be used, that is, the reverse osmosis method, to achieve the purpose of separation, extraction, purification and concentration.

In the formula, Kh is the hydraulic permeability coefficient, which increases slightly with the increase of temperature.

Reverse osmosis usually uses asymmetric membranes and composite membranes. The equipment used in reverse osmosis is mainly hollow fiber type or roll type membrane separation equipment.

The reverse osmosis membrane can intercept various inorganic ions, colloidal substances and macromolecular solutes in the water to obtain clean water. It can also be used for pre-concentration of macromolecular organic solutions. Due to the simple process of reverse osmosis and low energy consumption, it has developed rapidly in the past 20 years. It has been widely used in seawater and brackish water (see brine) desalination, boiler water softening and wastewater treatment, and combined with ion exchange to produce high-purity water. Its application range is expanding, and it has begun to be used in the concentration of dairy products and juices and biochemical products. And the separation and concentration of biological agents.

Reverse osmosis technology is usually used in sea water, fresh water of brackish water; softening treatment of water; wastewater treatment and purification, concentration and separation of food, pharmaceutical industry and chemical industry. In addition, the application of reverse osmosis technology to pre-demineralization treatment has also achieved good results, which can reduce the load of ion exchange resin by more than 90%, and the amount of resin regeneration agent can also be reduced by 90%. Therefore, it not only saves costs, but also contributes to environmental protection. Reverse osmosis technology can also be used to remove particles, organic substances, and colloids in the water, and has a good effect on reducing the pollution of ion exchange resins and prolonging the service life.

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